DATETIME SELECT SELECT INTO DATE PAD STRING DYNAMIC SQL CURSOR MONEY FORMAT PERCENT STORED PROCEDURE SQL SERVER AGENT JOB OPTIMIZATION WHILE LOOP OVER PARTITION BY UPDATE
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How to format datetime & date with century?

Execute the following Microsoft SQL Server T-SQL datetime, date and time formatting scripts in Management Studio Query Editor to demonstrate the usage of the multitude of temporal data formats available and the application of date / datetime functions.

-- Get date only from datetime - QUICK SYNTAX

SELECT DATEADD(dd, 0, DATEDIFF(dd, 0, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP)) -- 2016-10-23 00:00:00.000

------------
-- SQL Server T-SQL date & datetime formats - Gregorian calendar - Christian calendar
-- getdate() / CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(ANSI) returns system date & time in standard format
-- SQL datetime formats with century (YYYY or CCYY format)- sql date & time format

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 100) -- mon dd yyyy hh:mmAM (or PM)                                        -- Oct  2 2010 11:01AM          

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 101) -- mm/dd/yyyy - 10/02/2010                  

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 102) -- yyyy.mm.dd - 2010.10.02           

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 103) -- dd/mm/yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 104) -- dd.mm.yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 105) -- dd-mm-yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 106) -- dd mon yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 107) -- mon dd, yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 108) -- hh:mm:ss

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 109) -- mon dd yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmmAM (or PM)

                                        -- Oct  2 2010 11:02:44:013AM   

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 110) -- mm-dd-yyyy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 111) -- yyyy/mm/dd

-- yyyymmdd - ISO date format - international standard - works with any language setting

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 112) -- yyyymmdd

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 113) -- dd mon yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmm

                                        -- 02 Oct 2010 11:02:07:577     

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 114) -- hh:mm:ss:mmm(24h)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 120) -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss(24h)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 121) -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 126) -- yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.mmm - ISO8601

                                        -- 2010-10-02T10:52:47.513

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 127) -- yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.mmmZ - with time zone

SELECT convert(nvarchar(64), getdate(), 130) -- Arabic Hijri date

-- 29 جمادى الاولى 1433 1:13:04:633AM:

SELECT convert(nvarchar, getdate(), 131) -- Arabic Hijri date - Islamic calendar

-- 29/05/1433 12:57:26:690AM

-- Without century (YY) date / datetime conversion - there are exceptions!

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 0)   -- mon dd yyyy hh:mmAM (or PM)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 1)   -- mm/dd/yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 2)   -- yy.mm.dd          

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 3)   -- dd/mm/yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 4)   -- dd.mm.yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 5)   -- dd-mm-yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 6)   -- dd mon yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 7)   -- mon dd, yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 8)   -- hh:mm:ss

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 9)   -- mon dd yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmmAM (or PM)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 10)  -- mm-dd-yy

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 11)  -- yy/mm/dd

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 12)  -- yymmdd

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 13)  -- dd mon yyyy hh:mm:ss:mmm

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 14)  -- hh:mm:ss:mmm(24h)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 20)  -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss(24h)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 21)  -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 22)  -- mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss AM (or PM)

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 23)  -- yyyy-mm-dd

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 24)  -- hh:mm:ss

SELECT convert(varchar, getdate(), 25)  -- yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.mmm

-- SQL create different date styles with t-sql string functions

SELECT replace(convert(varchar, getdate(), 111), '/', ' ') -- yyyy mm dd

SELECT convert(varchar(7), getdate(), 126)                 -- yyyy-mm

SELECT right(convert(varchar, getdate(), 106), 8)          -- mon yyyy
SELECT substring(convert(varchar, getdate(), 120),6, 11)   -- mm-dd hh:mm
----------

-- Current (today) midnight calculation - remove time part of datetime

-- Today's date without time - datetime without time

DECLARE @CurrentMidnight datetime =

      dateadd(day, datediff(day,0, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)

SELECT @CurrentMidnight

-- 2012-03-15 00:00:00.000

----------

------------

-- SQL Server date formatting function - convert datetime to string

------------

-- SQL datetime functions - SQL date functions - SQL server datetime formatting

-- T-SQL convert dates - T-SQL date formats - Transact-SQL date formats

CREATE FUNCTION dbo.fnFormatDate (@Datetime DATETIME, @FormatMask VARCHAR(32))

RETURNS VARCHAR(32)

AS

BEGIN

    DECLARE @StringDate VARCHAR(32)

    SET @StringDate = @FormatMask

    IF (CHARINDEX ('YYYY',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'YYYY', DATENAME(YY, @Datetime))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('YY',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'YY', RIGHT(DATENAME(YY, @Datetime),2))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('Month',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'Month', DATENAME(MM, @Datetime))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('MON',@StringDate COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS)>0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'MON',

                         LEFT(UPPER(DATENAME(MM, @Datetime)),3))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('Mon',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'Mon', LEFT(DATENAME(MM, @Datetime),3))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('MM',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'MM',

                  RIGHT('0'+CONVERT(VARCHAR,DATEPART(MM, @Datetime)),2))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('M',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'M',

                         CONVERT(VARCHAR,DATEPART(MM, @Datetime)))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('DD',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'DD',

                         RIGHT('0'+DATENAME(DD, @Datetime),2))

    IF (CHARINDEX ('D',@StringDate) > 0)

       SET @StringDate = REPLACE(@StringDate, 'D', DATENAME(DD, @Datetime))   

RETURN @StringDate

END

GO

 

-- Microsoft SQL Server date format function test - MSSQL formatting date - sql datetime

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'MM/DD/YYYY')           -- 01/03/2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'DD/MM/YYYY')           -- 03/01/2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'M/DD/YYYY')            -- 1/03/2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'M/D/YYYY')             -- 1/3/2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'M/D/YY')               -- 1/3/12

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'MM/DD/YY')             -- 01/03/12

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'MON DD, YYYY')         -- JAN 03, 2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'Mon DD, YYYY')         -- Jan 03, 2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'Month DD, YYYY')       -- January 03, 2012

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'YYYY/MM/DD')           -- 2012/01/03

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'YYYYMMDD')             -- 20120103

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (getdate(), 'YYYY-MM-DD')           -- 2012-01-03

-- CURRENT_TIMESTAMP returns current system date and time in standard internal format

SELECT dbo.fnFormatDate (CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,'YY.MM.DD')      -- 12.01.03

------------

 

-- Convert date into integer format

DECLARE @date as DATETIME = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP;

SELECT CONVERT(int, CONVERT(char(8), @date, 112)) AS DateInt

-- 20120312

------------

/***** SELECTED SQL DATE/DATETIME FORMATS WITH NAMES *****/

 

-- SQL format datetime - - sql hh mm ss - sql yyyy mm dd

-- Default format: Oct 23 2006 10:40AM

SELECT [Default]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),100)

 

-- US-Style format: 10/23/2006

SELECT [US-Style]=CONVERT(char,GETDATE(),101)

 

-- ANSI format: 2006.10.23

SELECT [ANSI]=CONVERT(char,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,102)

 

-- UK-Style format: 23/10/2006

SELECT [UK-Style]=CONVERT(char,GETDATE(),103)

 

-- German format: 23.10.2006

SELECT [German]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),104)

 

-- ISO format: 20061023

SELECT ISO=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),112)

 

-- ISO8601 format: 2010-10-23T19:20:16.003

SELECT [ISO8601]=CONVERT(varchar,GETDATE(),126)

------------

 

------------

-- Islamic date conversion

------------

-- Gregorian date

SELECT CONVERT(VARCHAR(36), GETDATE(), 109)

-- Mar 17 2012  9:27:19:027PM

-- Islamic / Hijri date

SELECT CONVERT(NVARCHAR(36), GETDATE(), 130)

-- 24 ربيع الثاني 1433  9:27:19:030PM

SELECT CONVERT(VARCHAR(36), GETDATE(), 131)

-- 24/04/1433  9:27:19:030PM

------------

 

-- SQL Server datetime formats - Format dates SQL Server 2005 / 2008
-- Century date format MM/DD/YYYY usage in a query

SELECT TOP (1)

      SalesOrderID,

      OrderDate = CONVERT(char(10), OrderDate, 101),

      OrderDateTime = OrderDate

FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

/*

SalesOrderID      OrderDate               OrderDateTime

43697             07/01/2001          2001-07-01 00:00:00.000

*/

 

-- SQL update datetime column - SQL datetime DATEADD - datetime function

UPDATE Production.Product

SET ModifiedDate=DATEADD(dd,1, ModifiedDate)

WHERE ProductID = 1001

 

-- MM/DD/YY date format - Datetime format sql

SELECT TOP (1)

      SalesOrderID,

      OrderDate = CONVERT(varchar(8), OrderDate, 1),

      OrderDateTime = OrderDate

FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

ORDER BY SalesOrderID desc

/*

SalesOrderID      OrderDate         OrderDateTime

75123             07/31/04          2004-07-31 00:00:00.000

*/

------------

 

-- Converting UNIX timestamp to datetime

DECLARE @Date  BIGINT = 1477180800

/* (UNIX time = 1477180800 --> midnight, OCT 23, 2016) */

SELECT DATEADD(ss, @Date, '19700101')

-- 2016-10-23 00:00:00.000

------------

 
-- SQL convert datetime to char - sql date string concatenation: + (plus) operator

PRINT 'Style 110: '+CONVERT(CHAR(10),GETDATE(),110)         -- Style 110: 07-10-2012

PRINT 'Style 111: '+CONVERT(CHAR(10),GETDATE(),111)         -- Style 111: 2012/07/10

PRINT 'Style 112: '+CONVERT(CHAR(8), GETDATE(),112)         -- Style 112: 20120710   

------------

-- Combining different style formats for date & time

-- Datetime formats - sql times format - datetime formats sql

DECLARE @Date DATETIME

SET @Date = '2015-12-22 03:51 PM'

SELECT CONVERT(CHAR(10),@Date,110) + SUBSTRING(CONVERT(varchar,@Date,0),12,8)

-- Result: 12-22-2015  3:51PM

 

-- Microsoft SQL Server cast datetime to string

SELECT stringDateTime=CAST (getdate() as varchar)

-- Result: Dec 29 2012  3:47AM

Related article: Date and Time Functions (Transact-SQL)

 

------------

-- SQL Server date and time functions overview

------------

-- SQL Server CURRENT_TIMESTAMP function - SQL Server datetime functions

-- Local NYC - EST - Eastern Standard Time zone

-- SQL DATEADD function - SQL DATEDIFF function

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP                        -- 2012-01-05 07:02:10.577

-- SQL Server DATEADD function

SELECT DATEADD(month,2,'2012-12-09')            -- 2013-02-09 00:00:00.000

-- SQL Server DATEDIFF function

SELECT DATEDIFF(day,'2012-12-09','2013-02-09')  -- 62

-- SQL Server DATENAME function

SELECT DATENAME(month,   '2012-12-09')          -- December

SELECT DATENAME(weekday, '2012-12-09')          -- Sunday

-- SQL Server DATEPART function

SELECT DATEPART(month, '2012-12-09')            -- 12

-- SQL Server DAY function

SELECT DAY('2012-12-09')                        -- 9

-- SQL Server GETDATE function

-- local NYC - EST - Eastern Standard Time zone

SELECT GETDATE()                                -- 2012-01-05 07:02:10.577

-- SQL Server GETUTCDATE function

-- London - Greenwich Mean Time

SELECT GETUTCDATE()                             -- 2012-01-05 12:02:10.577

-- SQL Server MONTH function

SELECT MONTH('2012-12-09')                      -- 12

-- SQL Server YEAR function

SELECT YEAR('2012-12-09')                       -- 2012

 

The BEST 70-461 SQL Server 2012 Querying Exam Prep Book!

------------

-- Universal CONVERT function - datetime conversion UDF

------------

CREATE FUNCTION fnCONVERT( @Input datetimeoffset, @StyleNo int)

RETURNS nvarchar(35)  AS

BEGIN

  RETURN (CONVERT(nvarchar(35), @Input, @StyleNo))

END

GO

 

DECLARE @dt DATE=getdate(); SELECT dbo.fnCONVERT( @dt,106) -- 23 Dec 2010

GO

DECLARE @dt DATE=getdate(); SELECT dbo.fnCONVERT( @dt,156) -- 23 Dec 2010

GO

/* Msg 281, Level 16, State 1, Line 1

156 is not a valid style number when converting from datetimeoffset

to a character string. */

DECLARE @dt DATETIME=getdate(); SELECT dbo.fnCONVERT( @dt,112) -- 20101223

GO

DECLARE @dt SMALLDATETIME=getdate(); SELECT dbo.fnCONVERT( @dt,101) -- 12/23/2010

GO

------------

------------

-- SQL calculate the number of business days function - exclude Saturdays & Sundays

------------

CREATE FUNCTION fnBusinessDaysCount (@StartDate DATE, @EndDate  DATE)

RETURNS INT AS

  BEGIN

    IF (@StartDate IS NULL OR @EndDate IS NULL)  RETURN (0)

    DECLARE  @i INT = 0;

    WHILE (@StartDate <= @EndDate)

      BEGIN

        SET @i = @i + CASE

                        WHEN datepart(dw,@StartDate) BETWEEN 2 AND 6 THEN 1

                        ELSE 0

                      END 

        SET @StartDate = DATEADD(dd,1,@StartDate)

      END  -- while 

    RETURN (@i)

  END -- function

GO

SELECT dbo.fnBusinessDaysCount('2016-01-01','2016-12-31')

-- 261

------------

------------

-- T-SQL Date and time function application

-- CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and getdate() are the same in T-SQL

------------

-- T-SQL first day of week and last day of week

SELECT FirstDateOfWeek = dateadd(dd,-DATEPART(dw,GETDATE()) + 1,GETDATE())

SELECT LastDateOfWeek = dateadd(dd,7 - DATEPART(dw,GETDATE()),GETDATE())

-- SQL first day of the month - SQL first date of the month

-- SQL first day of current month - 2012-01-01 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(dd,0,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))

-- SQL last day of the month - SQL last date of the month

-- SQL last day of current month - 2012-01-31 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP)+1,0))

-- SQL first day of last month

-- SQL first day of previous month - 2011-12-01 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(mm,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))

-- SQL last day of last month

-- SQL last day of previous month - 2011-12-31 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,DATEADD(MM,-1,GETDATE()))+1,0))

-- SQL first day of next month - 2012-02-01 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(mm,1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),0))

-- SQL last day of next month - 2012-02-28 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,DATEADD(MM,1,GETDATE()))+1,0))

GO

-- SQL first day of a month - 2012-10-01 00:00:00.000

DECLARE @Date datetime; SET @Date = '2012-10-23'

SELECT DATEADD(dd,0,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,@Date),0))

GO

-- SQL last day of a month - 2012-03-31 00:00:00.000

DECLARE @Date datetime; SET @Date = '2012-03-15'

SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(mm, DATEDIFF(mm,0,@Date)+1,0))
GO

-- SQL first day of year - SQL first day of the year - 2012-01-01 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(yy, DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)

-- SQL last day of year - SQL last day of the year - 2012-12-31 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(yy,1, DATEADD(dd, -1, DATEADD(yy,

                     DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)))

-- SQL last day of last year - SQL last day of previous year - 2011-12-31 00:00:00.000

SELECT DATEADD(dd,-1,DATEADD(yy,DATEDIFF(yy,0,CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0))
GO

------------

 

-- First and last day of date periods

DECLARE @Date DATETIME; SET = @Date = '20161023';

SELECT ReferenceDate      = @Date 

SELECT FirstDayOfYear     = DATEADD(YY, DATEDIFF(YY,0, @Date),0)

SELECT LastDayOfYear      = DATEADD(YY, DATEDIFF(YY,0, @Date)+1,-1)

SELECT FirstDayOfSemester = DATEADD(QQ,((DATEDIFF(QQ,0,@Date)/2)*2),0)

SELECT LastDayOfSemester  = DATEADD(QQ,((DATEDIFF(QQ,0,@Date)/2)*2)+2,-1)

SELECT FirstDayOfQuarter  = DATEADD(QQ, DATEDIFF(QQ,0, @Date),0)

-- 2016-10-01 00:00:00.000

SELECT LastDayOfQuarter   = DATEADD(QQ, DATEDIFF(QQ,0, @Date)+1,-1)

-- 2016-12-31 00:00:00.000

SELECT FirstDayOfMonth    = DATEADD(MM, DATEDIFF(MM,0, @Date),0)

SELECT LastDayOfMonth     = DATEADD(MM, DATEDIFF(MM,0, @Date)+1,-1)

SELECT FirstDayOfWeek     = DATEADD(WK, DATEDIFF(WK,0, @Date),0)

SELECT LastDayOfWeek      = DATEADD(WK, DATEDIFF(WK,0, @Date)+1,-1)

-- 2016-10-30 00:00:00.000

------------

-- Start of week SUNDAY - US_english language setting -

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, DATEADD (week, DATEDIFF(week,6, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),6)

-- End of week SATURDAY

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, DATEADD (week, DATEDIFF(week,5, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP),5)

------------

The BEST 70-461 SQL Server 2012 Querying Exam Prep Book!

-- SQL calculate age in years, months, days - Format dates SQL Server 2008

-- SQL table-valued function - SQL user-defined function - UDF

-- SQL Server age calculation - date difference

USE AdventureWorks2008;

GO

CREATE FUNCTION fnAge  (@BirthDate DATETIME)

RETURNS @Age TABLE(Years  INT,

                   Months INT,

                   Days   INT)

AS

  BEGIN

    DECLARE  @EndDate     DATETIME, @Anniversary DATETIME

    SET @EndDate = Getdate()

    SET @Anniversary = Dateadd(yy,Datediff(yy,@BirthDate,@EndDate),@BirthDate)

    INSERT @Age

    SELECT Datediff(yy,@BirthDate,@EndDate) - (CASE

                                                 WHEN @Anniversary > @EndDate THEN 1

                                                 ELSE 0

                                               END), 0, 0

     UPDATE @Age     SET    Months = Month(@EndDate - @Anniversary) - 1

    UPDATE @Age     SET    Days = Day(@EndDate - @Anniversary) - 1

    RETURN

  END

GO

 

-- Test table-valued UDF

SELECT * FROM   fnAge('1956-10-23')

SELECT * FROM   dbo.fnAge('1956-10-23')

/* Results

Years       Months      Days

52          4           1

*/

 

----------

-- SQL date range between

----------

-- SQL between dates

USE AdventureWorks;

-- SQL between

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate BETWEEN '20040301' AND '20040315'

-- Result: 108

 

-- BETWEEN operator is equivalent to >=...AND....<=

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate

BETWEEN '2004-03-01 00:00:00.000' AND '2004-03-15  00:00:00.000'

/*

Orders with OrderDates

'2004-03-15  00:00:01.000'  - 1 second after midnight (12:00AM)

'2004-03-15  00:01:00.000'  - 1 minute after midnight

'2004-03-15  01:00:00.000'  - 1 hour after midnight

 

are not included in the two queries above.

*/

-- To include the entire day of 2004-03-15 use the following two solutions

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE OrderDate >= '20040301' AND OrderDate < '20040316'

 

-- SQL between with DATE type (SQL Server 2008)

SELECT POs=COUNT(*) FROM Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

WHERE CONVERT(DATE, OrderDate) BETWEEN '20040301' AND '20040315'

----------

-- Non-standard format conversion: 2011 December 14

-- SQL datetime to string

SELECT [YYYY Month DD] =

CAST(YEAR(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(4))+ ' '+

DATENAME(MM, GETDATE()) + ' ' +

CAST(DAY(GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR(2))

 

-- Converting datetime to YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format: 20121214172638

SELECT replace(convert(varchar, getdate(),111),'/','') +

replace(convert(varchar, getdate(),108),':','')

 

-- Datetime custom format conversion to YYYY_MM_DD

select CurrentDate=rtrim(year(getdate())) + '_' +

right('0' + rtrim(month(getdate())),2) + '_' +

right('0' + rtrim(day(getdate())),2)

 

-- Converting seconds to HH:MM:SS format

declare @Seconds int

set @Seconds = 10000

select TimeSpan=right('0' +rtrim(@Seconds / 3600),2) + ':' +

right('0' + rtrim((@Seconds % 3600) / 60),2) + ':' +

right('0' + rtrim(@Seconds % 60),2)

-- Result: 02:46:40

 

-- Test result

select 2*3600 + 46*60 + 40

-- Result: 10000

-- Set the time portion of a datetime value to 00:00:00.000

-- SQL strip time from date

-- SQL strip time from datetime

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ,DATEADD(dd, DATEDIFF(dd, 0, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP), 0)

-- Results: 2014-01-23 05:35:52.793 2014-01-23 00:00:00.000

/* VALID DATE RANGES FOR DATE/DATETIME DATA TYPES

 

SMALLDATETIME (4 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1900 through June 6, 2079

 

DATETIME (8 bytes) date range:

January 1, 1753 through December 31, 9999

 

DATETIME2 (8 bytes) date range (SQL Server 2008):

January 1,1 AD through December 31, 9999 AD

 

DATE (3 bytes) date range (SQL Server 2008):

January 1, 1 AD through December 31, 9999 AD

 

*******/

-- Selecting with CONVERT into different styles

-- Note: Only Japan & ISO styles can be used in ORDER BY

SELECT TOP(1)

     Italy  = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 105)

   , USA    = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 110)

   , Japan  = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 111)

   , ISO    = CONVERT(varchar, OrderDate, 112)

FROM AdventureWorks.Purchasing.PurchaseOrderHeader

ORDER BY PurchaseOrderID DESC

/* Results

Italy       USA         Japan       ISO

25-07-2004  07-25-2004  2004/07/25  20040725

*/

-- SQL Server convert date to integer

DECLARE @Datetime datetime

SET @Datetime = '2012-10-23 10:21:05.345'

SELECT DateAsInteger = CAST (CONVERT(varchar,@Datetime,112) as INT)

-- Result: 20121023

 

-- SQL Server convert integer to datetime

DECLARE @intDate int

SET @intDate = 20120315

SELECT IntegerToDatetime = CAST(CAST(@intDate as varchar) as datetime)

-- Result: 2012-03-15 00:00:00.000

-------------

-- Julian date (YYYYDDD) to date / datetime converter

------------

CREATE FUNCTION dbo.fnJulianToDate (@JulianDt char(7))

RETURNS date AS

BEGIN

    RETURN (SELECT DATEADD(day, CAST(RIGHT(@JulianDt,3) AS int) - 1,

    CONVERT(datetime, LEFT(@JulianDt,4) + '0101', 112)))

END

GO

SELECT dbo.fnJulianToDate ('2016040')

-- 2016-02-09

------------

-----------

-- SQL Server CONVERT script applying table INSERT/UPDATE

------------

-- SQL Server convert date

-- Datetime column is converted into date only string column

USE tempdb;

GO

CREATE TABLE sqlConvertDateTime   (

            DatetimeCol datetime,

            DateCol char(8));

INSERT sqlConvertDateTime (DatetimeCol) SELECT GETDATE()

 

UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime

SET DateCol = CONVERT(char(10), DatetimeCol, 112)

SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

 

-- SQL Server convert datetime

-- The string date column is converted into datetime column

UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime

SET DatetimeCol = CONVERT(Datetime, DateCol, 112)

SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

 

-- Adding a day to the converted datetime column with DATEADD

UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime

SET DatetimeCol = DATEADD(day, 1, CONVERT(Datetime, DateCol, 112))

SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

 

-- Equivalent formulation - SQL Server CAST datetime

UPDATE sqlConvertDateTime

SET DatetimeCol = DATEADD(dd, 1, CAST(DateCol AS datetime))

SELECT * FROM sqlConvertDateTime

GO

DROP TABLE sqlConvertDateTime

GO

/* First results

DatetimeCol                   DateCol

2014-12-25 16:04:15.373       20141225 */

 

/* Second results:

DatetimeCol                   DateCol

2014-12-25 00:00:00.000       20141225  */

 

/* Third results:

DatetimeCol                   DateCol

2014-12-26 00:00:00.000       20141225  */

------------

-- SQL month sequence - SQL date sequence generation with table variable

-- SQL Server cast string to datetime - SQL Server cast datetime to string

-- SQL Server insert default values method

DECLARE @Sequence table (Sequence int identity(1,1))

DECLARE @i int; SET @i = 0

DECLARE @StartDate datetime;

SET @StartDate = CAST(CONVERT(varchar, year(getdate()))+

                 RIGHT('0'+convert(varchar,month(getdate())),2) + '01' AS DATETIME)

WHILE ( @i < 120)

BEGIN

      INSERT @Sequence DEFAULT VALUES

      SET @i = @i + 1

END

SELECT MonthSequence = CAST(DATEADD(month, Sequence,@StartDate) AS varchar)

FROM @Sequence

GO

/* Partial results:

MonthSequence

Jan  1 2012 12:00AM

Feb  1 2012 12:00AM

Mar  1 2012 12:00AM

Apr  1 2012 12:00AM

*/

------------

 

The BEST 70-461 SQL Server 2012 Querying Exam Prep Book!

------------

-- SQL Server Server datetime internal storage - SQL Server datetime formats

------------

-- SQL Server datetime to hex

SELECT Now=CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, HexNow=CAST(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP AS BINARY(8))

/* Results

 

Now                     HexNow

2009-01-02 17:35:59.297 0x00009B850122092D

*/

-- SQL Server date part - left 4 bytes - Days since 1900-01-01

SELECT Now=DATEADD(DAY, CONVERT(INT, 0x00009B85), '19000101')

GO

-- Result: 2009-01-02 00:00:00.000

 

-- SQL time part - right 4 bytes - milliseconds since midnight

-- 1000/300 is an adjustment factor

-- SQL dateadd to Midnight

SELECT Now=DATEADD(MS, (1000.0/300)* CONVERT(BIGINT, 0x0122092D), '2009-01-02')

GO

-- Result: 2009-01-02 17:35:59.290

------------

------------

-- String date and datetime date&time columns usage
-- SQL Server datetime formats in tables

------------

USE tempdb;

SET NOCOUNT ON;

-- SQL Server select into table create

SELECT TOP (5)

      FullName=convert(nvarchar(50),FirstName+' '+LastName),

      BirthDate = CONVERT(char(8), BirthDate,112),

      ModifiedDate = getdate()

INTO Employee

FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.Employee e

INNER JOIN AdventureWorks.Person.Contact c

ON c.ContactID = e.ContactID

ORDER BY EmployeeID

GO

-- SQL Server alter table

ALTER TABLE Employee ALTER COLUMN FullName nvarchar(50) NOT NULL

GO

ALTER TABLE Employee

ADD CONSTRAINT [PK_Employee] PRIMARY KEY (FullName )

GO

/* Results

 

Table definition for the Employee table

Note: BirthDate is string date (only)

 

CREATE TABLE dbo.Employee(

      FullName nvarchar(50) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

      BirthDate char(8) NULL,

      ModifiedDate datetime NOT NULL

      )

*/

SELECT * FROM Employee ORDER BY FullName

GO

/* Results

FullName                BirthDate   ModifiedDate

Guy Gilbert             19720515    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217

Kevin Brown             19770603    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217

Rob Walters             19650123    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217

Roberto Tamburello      19641213    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217

Thierry D'Hers          19490829    2009-01-03 10:10:19.217

*/

 

-- SQL Server age

SELECT FullName, Age = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, GETDATE()),

       RowMaintenanceDate = CAST (ModifiedDate AS varchar)

FROM Employee ORDER BY FullName

GO

/* Results

FullName                Age   RowMaintenanceDate

Guy Gilbert             37    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM

Kevin Brown             32    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM

Rob Walters             44    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM

Roberto Tamburello      45    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM

Thierry D'Hers          60    Jan  3 2009 10:10AM

*/

 

-- SQL Server age of Rob Walters on specific dates

-- SQL Server string to datetime implicit conversion with DATEADD

SELECT AGE50DATE = DATEADD(YY, 50, '19650123')

GO

-- Result: 2015-01-23 00:00:00.000

 

-- SQL Server datetime to string, Italian format for ModifiedDate

-- SQL Server string to datetime implicit conversion with DATEDIFF

SELECT FullName,

         AgeDEC31 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, '20141231'),

         AgeJAN01 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, '20150101'),

         AgeJAN23 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, '20150123'),

         AgeJAN24 = DATEDIFF(YEAR, BirthDate, '20150124'),

       ModDate = CONVERT(varchar, ModifiedDate, 105)

FROM Employee

WHERE FullName = 'Rob Walters'

ORDER BY FullName

GO

/* Results

Important Note: age increments on Jan 1 (not as commonly calculated)

 

FullName    AgeDEC31    AgeJAN01    AgeJAN23    AgeJAN24    ModDate

Rob Walters 49          50          50          50          03-01-2009 */

 

------------

-- SQL combine integer date & time into datetime

------------

-- Datetime format sql

-- SQL stuff

DECLARE @DateTimeAsINT TABLE ( ID int identity(1,1) primary key, 

   DateAsINT int, 

   TimeAsINT int 

) 

-- NOTE: leading zeroes in time is for readability only!  

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 235959)  

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 010204)  

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 002350)

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000244)  

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000050)  

INSERT @DateTimeAsINT (DateAsINT, TimeAsINT) VALUES (20121023, 000006)  

 

SELECT DateAsINT, TimeAsINT,

  CONVERT(datetime, CONVERT(varchar(8), DateAsINT) + ' '+

  STUFF(STUFF ( RIGHT(REPLICATE('0', 6) + CONVERT(varchar(6), TimeAsINT), 6),

                  3, 0, ':'), 6, 0, ':'))  AS DateTimeValue

FROM   @DateTimeAsINT 

ORDER BY ID

GO

/* Results

DateAsINT   TimeAsINT   DateTimeValue

20121023    235959      2012-10-23 23:59:59.000

20121023    10204       2012-10-23 01:02:04.000

20121023    2350        2012-10-23 00:23:50.000

20121023    244         2012-10-23 00:02:44.000

20121023    50          2012-10-23 00:00:50.000

20121023    6           2012-10-23 00:00:06.000

*/

------------

-- SQL Server string to datetime, implicit conversion with assignment

UPDATE Employee SET ModifiedDate = '20150123'

WHERE FullName = 'Rob Walters'

GO

SELECT ModifiedDate FROM Employee WHERE FullName = 'Rob Walters'

GO

-- Result: 2015-01-23 00:00:00.000

 

/* SQL string date, assemble string date from datetime parts  */

-- SQL Server cast string to datetime - sql convert string date

-- SQL Server number to varchar conversion

-- SQL Server leading zeroes for month and day

-- SQL Server right string function

UPDATE Employee SET BirthDate =

      CONVERT(char(4),YEAR(CAST('1965-01-23' as DATETIME)))+

      RIGHT('0'+CONVERT(varchar,MONTH(CAST('1965-01-23' as DATETIME))),2)+

      RIGHT('0'+CONVERT(varchar,DAY(CAST('1965-01-23' as DATETIME))),2)

      WHERE FullName = 'Rob Walters'

GO

SELECT BirthDate FROM Employee WHERE FullName = 'Rob Walters'

GO

-- Result: 19650123

 

-- Perform cleanup action

DROP TABLE Employee

-- SQL nocount

SET NOCOUNT OFF;

GO

------------

------------

-- sql isdate function

------------

USE tempdb;

-- sql newid - random sort

SELECT top(3) SalesOrderID,

stringOrderDate = CAST (OrderDate AS varchar)

INTO DateValidation

FROM AdventureWorks.Sales.SalesOrderHeader

ORDER BY NEWID()

GO

SELECT * FROM DateValidation

/* Results

SalesOrderID      stringOrderDate

56720             Oct 26 2003 12:00AM

73737             Jun 25 2004 12:00AM

70573             May 14 2004 12:00AM

*/

-- SQL update with top

UPDATE TOP(1) DateValidation

SET stringOrderDate = 'Apb 29 2004 12:00AM'

GO

-- SQL string to datetime fails without validation

SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderDate = CAST (stringOrderDate as datetime)

FROM DateValidation

GO

/* Msg 242, Level 16, State 3, Line 1

The conversion of a varchar data type to a datetime data type resulted in an

out-of-range value.

*/

-- sql isdate - filter for valid dates

SELECT SalesOrderID, OrderDate = CAST (stringOrderDate as datetime)

FROM DateValidation

WHERE ISDATE(stringOrderDate) = 1

GO

/* Results

SalesOrderID      OrderDate

73737             2004-06-25 00:00:00.000

70573             2004-05-14 00:00:00.000

*/

-- SQL drop table

DROP TABLE DateValidation

Go

 

------------

-- SELECT between two specified dates - assumption TIME part is 00:00:00.000

------------

-- SQL datetime between

-- SQL select between two dates

SELECT EmployeeID, RateChangeDate

FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory

WHERE RateChangeDate >= '1997-11-01' AND 

      RateChangeDate < DATEADD(dd,1,'1998-01-05')

GO

/* Results

EmployeeID  RateChangeDate

3           1997-12-12 00:00:00.000

4           1998-01-05 00:00:00.000

*/

 

/* Equivalent to

 

-- SQL datetime range

SELECT EmployeeID, RateChangeDate

FROM AdventureWorks.HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory

WHERE RateChangeDate >= '1997-11-01 00:00:00' AND 

      RateChangeDate <  '1998-01-06 00:00:00'

GO

*/

------------

-- SQL datetime language setting

-- SQL Nondeterministic function usage - result varies with language settings

SET LANGUAGE  'us_english';  –– Jan 12 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT US = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'British';     –– Dec  1 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT UK = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'German';      –– Dez  1 2015 12:00AM 

SET LANGUAGE  'Deutsch';     –– Dez  1 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT Germany = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'French';      –– déc  1 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT France = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'Spanish';     –– Dic  1 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT Spain = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'Hungarian';   –– jan 12 2015 12:00AM 

SELECT Hungary = convert(VARCHAR,convert(DATETIME,'01/12/2015'));

SET LANGUAGE  'us_english';

GO
------------

-- SQL Server 2008 T-SQL find next Monday for a given date

DECLARE @DateTime DATETIME = '2012-12-31'

SELECT NextMondaysDate=DATEADD(dd,(DATEDIFF(dd, 0, @DateTime) / 7 * 7) + 7, 0),

WeekDayName=DATENAME(dw,DATEADD(dd,(DATEDIFF(dd, 0, @DateTime) / 7 * 7) + 7, 0));

/*

NextMondaysDate         WeekDayName

2013-01-07 00:00:00.000 Monday

*/

------------

------------

-- Function for Monday dates calculation

------------

USE AdventureWorks2008;

GO

-- SQL user-defined function

-- SQL scalar function - UDF

CREATE FUNCTION fnMondayDate

               (@Year          INT,

                @Month         INT,

                @MondayOrdinal INT)

RETURNS DATETIME

AS

  BEGIN

    DECLARE  @FirstDayOfMonth CHAR(10),

             @SeedDate        CHAR(10)

    

    SET @FirstDayOfMonth = convert(VARCHAR,@Year) + '-' + convert(VARCHAR,@Month) + '-01'

    SET @SeedDate = '1900-01-01'

    

    RETURN DATEADD(DD,DATEDIFF(DD,@SeedDate,DATEADD(DD,(@MondayOrdinal * 7) - 1,

                  @FirstDayOfMonth)) / 7 * 7,  @SeedDate)

  END

GO

 

-- Test Datetime UDF - Third Monday in Feb, 2015

SELECT dbo.fnMondayDate(2016,2,3)

-- 2015-02-16 00:00:00.000

 

-- First Monday of current month

SELECT dbo.fnMondayDate(Year(getdate()),Month(getdate()),1)

-- 2009-02-02 00:00:00.000  

------------

Related articles:

http://www.sqlusa.com/bestpractices/datetimeconversion/

datetime (Transact-SQL)

SQL Server DateTime Formatting

SQL SERVER Retrieve Current Date Time in SQL Server CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, GETDATE(), {fn NOW()}

CAST and CONVERT

 

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Exam 70-461
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